Psychologische Aspekte der Projektarbeit (German Edition)
The novel course format was motivated by the necessity to run examinations for all courses during all terms, even though almost all courses are offered only every second term. As a consequence and because of a very high students to teacher ratio, many students have to prepare for examinations without sufficient assistance. This article describes the novel course format and reports on its evaluation in a case study. The evaluation indicates that most students benefit from the novel course format but that it is less efficient than traditional formats based on a much higher teachers' involvement.
The major weakness of the novel format is an insufficient dedication of some students to their reviewing.
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The article suggests and discusses possible measures to address that weakness. An immediate overview of responses to quiz questions and the team standings motivates students to participate in the quizzes. The contribution of this article is threefold: First, a team-based social gamification of quizzes aimed at boosting participation in quizzes and attendance at lectures, second, original technological tools supporting the proposed team-based social gamification, and third, an evaluation of the approach demonstrating its effectiveness.
Abstract One of the most vexing aspects of tertiary education is the learning behaviour of many beginners: Late drop-outs after much time has already been invested in attending a course, incomplete homework even though completed homework is a sufficient condition for success at examinations, and misconceptions that are not overcome early enough. This article presents three predictors related to these learning-impairing behaviours that have been built from data collected with a learning platform and by examining homework assignments, and developed as Hidden Markov Model, by relying on Collaborative Filtering, and by using Multiple Linear Regression.
Considering the large numbers of unknown parameters like course-independent learning, this quality is satisfying. The predictors have been developed for fostering a better learning by raising the learners' consciousness of the deficiencies of their learning. In other words, the predictors aim at "getting it wrong". The article reports on the predictors and their evaluation. Abstract Seminars are difficult and therefore often neglected classes in STEM education even though they greatly contribute to the students' scientific maturity.
Seminars are a traditional educational format blending classroom, collaborative, and individual learning: Seminar participants are tasked to discover, understand, and convey a scientific or technical issue to the other seminar attendees in an essay and in an oral presentation engaging them into a fruitful discussion.
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Seminars are rightly considered a cornerstone of STEM education, yet they are often frustrating experiences for both learners and teachers due to insufficient supervision and practice. This article reports on using Backstage 2, a web platform that, by offering a virtual space and tools for a fruitful communication, bridges classroom, collaborative, and individual learning activities.
The contribution of this article is threefold: First, a class format aimed at boosting collaboration in seminars, second, technological tools supporting collaboration among seminar attendees, and third, an evaluation of the approach demonstrating its effectiveness. Abstract Processing programs as data is one of the successes of functional and logic programming. Higher-order functions, as program-processing programs are called in functional programming, and meta-programs, as they are called in logic programming, are widespread declarative programming techniques.
In logic programming, there is a gap between the meta-programming practice and its theory: The formalisations of meta-programming do not explicitly address its impredicativity and are not fully adequate. This article aims at overcoming this unsatisfactory situation by discussing the relevance of impredicativity to meta-programming, by revisiting former formalisations of meta-programming and by defining Reflective Predicate Logic, a conservative extension of first-order logic, which provides a simple formalisation of meta-programming.
Indeed, many human skills are far away from being fully taken over by machines.
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For example, reading comprehension, image recognition, or finding heuristic solutions for complex computational tasks like the traveling salesman problem still is beyond the capabilities of machines. It therefore seems natural that combining both the skills of humans and of machines can result in a higher problem solving competence both in quantity and quality.
The first article, "Mobile Learning in Environmental Citizen Science: An initial survey of current practice in Germany", reports on a survey of mobile learning among environmental citizen science projects. The second article, "Design and Implementation of a Platform for the Citizen Science Project Migraine Radar", describes a Citizen Science platform based on a software architecture with different front-ends and a back-end.
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The scope of the project, Migraine Radar, is to establish a large data collection on migraine attacks so as to explore the triggering factors of such attacks. The platform usage has been verified within a Citizen Science project where the participants reviewed articles on vaccination against the Human Papilloma Virus HPV. The fourth article, "Not-So-Distant Reading: A Dynamic Network Approach to Literature", describes a novel approach to analysing the occurrence of characters in Victorian novels relying on a prototype system offering various visualizations.
The article reports on a user study demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach. We therefore recommend the interested readers to keep an eye of forthcoming results and project reports! Abstract 20th century iconic examples of human collaboration are the assembly line, centralised planning, bureaucracies, vote-based decision making, and school education.
These examples, and more generally all forms of human collaboration of the 20th century, are characterized by predefined human roles and little adaptable processes, that is, 20th century collaboration comes at the price of a restricted individual freedom. With the turn of the century, new forms of human collaboration have become widespread that exploit information and communication technologies, data generated by humans, Data Science in general and Machine Learning in particular, and let humans contribute as they like, when they like, and as much as they can, the lack of predefined roles and processes being accounted for by software.
The phrase "Human Computation" coined for denoting the new forms of human collaboration stresses a core aspect of the paradigm which can be a downside: With Human Computation, humans become contributors to collaboration-enabling algorithms that can also control and restrict how collaboration takes place. This article introduces to Human Computation and to its role in applications of Machine Learning, presents Human Computation prototype systems developed during the last decade at Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, discusses ethical issues of Human Computation and Machine Learning, points to on-going research in the field at Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, and concludes with a reflection on the future of Human Computation.
The original contribution of this article is a comprehensive presentation of recent re-search the main part of which has already been published in more detail elsewhere. Abstract Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to report on the challenges met, on the novel teaching form and on an evaluation of this teaching form. The use of Backstage in two courses is evaluated. One of the courses has been specially adapted to promote student participation, the other course has been held in a traditional way.
To investigate the usefulness and acceptance of Backstage in the given settings the data collected on Backstage and student responses in surveys are analyzed. The results indicate that Backstage can foster interactivity and awareness in large-class lectures when used in combination with a teaching format that provides opportunities for and encourges lecture-relevant communication. Furthermore, students appreciated the use of Backstage. This paper reports on a case study which lacks generalizability. Further studies under controlled conditions and of the learning effectiveness of the approach are still outstanding.
Practical implications. This paper describes an approach fostering a form of Active Learning in large classes. Since large classes are widespread in higher education, the approach has a considerable practical potential. Social implications. The paper describes an approach to large class higher education teaching in using social media. Similar results have not been published so far. Abstract ARTigo is both, a gaming platform and an artwork search engine: While playing, ARTigo's users leaves annotations describing artworks; these annotations are automatically processed by a higher-order latent semantic analysis for building, and continuously improving, an artwork search engine.
ARTigo's search engine has been developed for, and with, art historians and covers more that 65, artworks of different styles and epochs. ARTigo is in operation since ARTigo's gaming platform is an ecosystem consisting of different types of games aiming at collecting rich annotations of different type: Description games aim at collecting mere descriptions, diversification games aim at completing artwork descriptions with more specific characterizations, integration games cluster annotations so as to generate more precise descriptions.
This article's analysis points to both, the effectiveness of ARTigo as a gaming ecosystem and the effectiveness of each of the games at collecting specific annotations.
4840.ru/components/spionage/miheb-handy-orten-per.php Welche Punkte muss ich bei der Projektplanung beachten? Im ersten Teil helfen viele praktische Tipps bei der Entwicklung des Projekts. Eine grafische Darstellung der Projektmeilensteine und eine Checkliste runden die Darstellung ab. Im zweiten Teil wird die Umsetzung von Citizen Science in bestimmten Bereichen wie Naturschutz, Geisteswissenschaften oder im digitalen Raum beschrieben und reflektiert. This article reports on the challenges met, on the novel teaching form and on an evaluation of this teaching form. Findings: The results indicate that Backstage can foster interactivity and awareness in large-class lectures when used in combination with a teaching format that provides opportunities for and encourages lecture-relevant communication.
Practical implications: This article describes an approach fostering a form of Active Learning in large classes. Erste Auflage. Abstract This article reports on an analysis of the semantic quality of artwork annotations that have been collected by the web platform ARTigo from to ARTigo is both, a gaming platform for collecting semantic annotations and a semantic search engine: While playing games featuring artworks, one leaves data describing these artworks that are automatically used for building up, and continuously improving, an artwork search engine. ARTigo is an ecosystem consisting of different types of games aiming at collecting annotations of different semantic depth: Description games aim at collecting mere descriptions, diversification games aim at completing artwork descriptions with more specific characterizations, integration games cluster annotations so as to generate more precise descriptions.
The qualitative analysis this article reports about points to both, the effectiveness of ARTigo as a gaming ecosystem and the effectiveness of each of game at collecting annotations with the desired semantic depth. Abstract Mobile devices, such as laptops, smartphones and tablets, are ubiquitous in lectures. Students report to use their mobile devices for lecture-related activities e. Observational data shows, that students use mobile device mainly for lecture-unrelated activities, like Facebook or playing games.
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So currently, mobile devices seem to distract learners from the lecture and ultimately hinder student-teacher interaction. Backstage entails functions for quizzing students Audience-Response-System and a backchannel allowing students to interact with each other, commenting on slides, asking questions, and providing feedback to lecturers.
The results show that this technology increases students' focus on lecture-related activities. Abstract Annotating is an important part when working with literature, especially in science. A proof of concept prototype called BibPad has been realized that allows users to create, share, and collaborate on annotations. These annotations contain information about the annotated media that go far beyond usual meta data and can be used to build a library search engine through crowdsourcing.
Crowdsourcing a library search engine is in fact the reason why BibPad has been conceived and developed. To reach this goal, this paper examines different classes of physical annotations and proposes appropriate digital representations. This takes into account that most of a library's media is not available digitally. For this reason, BibPad is built in a way that supports both the annotation of digital and the annotation of physical media.
Moreover, the annotations are not bound to a specific media, e. BibPad is mainly intended for the use in libraries. Users can easily add media via a barcode scan to their personal library and start creating annotations. Now that the annotations are digitally available, new possibilities for social interaction are opened up: users can create groups to share media and associated annotations with or even create public annotations. A shared annotation can be flagged as editable; in this case, every group member can edit and contribute to the annotation.
This paper results from an ongoing joint research project with the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and the University of Munich. Goal of this research project is to develop a semantic search engine for these media. Abstract The market metaphor offers a promising form of human computation for gathering and aggregating individual opinions into a collective point of view for groups of people.
In this article, we identify different kinds of market forms, their specific goals, and their participants' behavior. Building on this, we first identify appropriate reward designs for a good functioning of the markets as opinion aggregators. Furthermore, we stress potential possibilities for facilitating participants' learning.